Islamic Republic of Iran
636,296.36 sq mi
1,648,000.00 sq km
65,619,636 (July 2000 est.)
Estimated Population in 2050
Persian and Persian dialects 58%, Turkic and Turkic dialects 26%, Kurdish
9%, Luri 2%, Balochi 1%, Arabic 1%, Turkish 1%, other 2%
72.1% total, 78.4% male, 65.8% female (1994 est.)
Shi'a Muslim 89%, Sunni Muslim 10%, Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian,
and Baha'i 1%
68.34 male, 71.05 female (2000 est.)
10 Iranian rials (IR) = 1 toman
GDP (per capita)
$5,300 (1999 est.)
Labor Force (by occupation)
agriculture 33%, industry 25%, services 42% (1997 est.)
petroleum, petrochemicals, textiles, cement and other construction materials,
food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil production),
metal fabricating, armaments
wheat, rice, other grains, sugar beets, fruits, nuts, cotton; dairy
products, wool; caviar
petroleum 80%, carpets, fruits, nuts, hides, iron, steel
machinery, military supplies, metal works, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals,
technical services, refined oil products
petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese,
Current Environmental Issues
air pollution, especially in urban areas, from vehicle emissions, refinery
operations, and industrial effluents; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification;
oil pollution in the Persian Gulf; inadequate supplies of potable water
Telephones (main lines in use)
7 million (1998 est.)
Telephones (mobile cellular)
265,000 (August 1998)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs)
The first distinct people to emerge on the Iranian plateau were probably
the Elamites, who established a city at Shush in the far south-west.
The Aryans came to the region in the second millennium BC, bringing
with them some agricultural and domestic skills. It wasn't until the
middle of the 6th century BC, when the Achaemenian king Cyrus the Great
ruled the region, that Persian history was documented. The Achaemenian
Dynasty is recognised as the founder of the Persian Empire, leading
to the eventual creation of Iran.
In the 4th century
BC Alexander the Great invaded Persia after conquering most of Greece,
Egypt, Turkey and Iraq. Despite three conciliatory offers from Darius
III for a negotiated peace, Alexander entered Shush. From there, he
took some time to cross the mountains to the east, but eventually entered
Persepolis. After Alexander's death in 323 BC, the empire was divided
into three squabbling dynasties, with Persia controlled by the Macedonian
Seleucids. But the Seleucids had problems controlling the numerous feisty
ethnic minorities, in particular the nomadic Parthians who came to control
most of Persia until the 3rd century AD. The Sassanians came from the
central regions of Persia not under direct control of the Parthians.
They were an industrious Zoroastrian gang who promoted urban development
and encouraged trade, but who eventually fell to squabbling and were
overrun by the Arabs in 637.
The Arabs ruled
until 1050, converting most of the population to Islam and introducing
the new Persian script and Islamic culture. They were brought down by
a Turkish dynasty, which captured Esfahan in 1051. Despite numerous
rebellions, the Turks hung onto power until they were swept clean away
by Genghis Khan's rampaging Mongols in the early 13th century. When
the Mongols ran out of leaders in the late 14th century, the Timurid
Dynasty filled the breach, but was then pressured by Turkmen tribes,
Ottoman Turks and European colonialists such as Portugal.
The ensuing Safavid
Dynasty (1502-1722) was one of the great Persian empires. The brilliant
Shah Abbas I and his successors enshrined Shi'ism and rebuilt Esfahan,
but the dynasty's decline was hastened by Afghan invasions in the early
18th century. The Afghans couldn't hold power and Iran was ruled by
a succession of variously mad, bad and benevolent rulers until the even
badder Agha Muhammed Khan, a eunuch, united the Turkish Ghajars in 1779
and went on to establish a capital in Tehran. The Ghajar kings ruled
a relatively peaceful Iran until 1921, managing to remain neutral during
WWI, but were not able to prevent a partial occupation by British forces
keen to ensure a constant supply of oil.
One of the last
Ghajar kings introduced the idea of elections and a legislative assembly
(called the Majlis), but it wasn't until the charismatic Persian Reza
Khan came along in 1923 that the idea stuck. Reza became prime minister,
and commenced the huge task of dragging the country into the 20th century.
Iran (the name was officially adopted in 1934) was again neutral during
WWII but Britain and Russia established spheres of influence there to
shut out Germany. In 1941, Reza was forced into exile in South Africa
and his son, Mohammed Reza, succeeded him. After the war, the USA helped
persuade the Russians to leave, the young Shah regained absolute power
and Iran became firmly aligned with the West.
Over the next 30
years, there was a build up of resistance to Reza, who had adopted the
title of Shah, and his regime of repression and modernisation. As the
economy went from bad to worse under the Shah's post oil-boom mismanagement,
the growing opposition made its presence felt with sabotage and massive
demonstrations. The Shah's responses became increasingly desperate and
brutal, US support wavered, and he finally fled on 16 January 1979.
A couple of weeks later, the acknowledged leader of the Shah's opponents,
Ayatollah Khomeini, returned from exile to be greeted by adoring millions.
The Ayatollah's fiery brand of nationalism and Islamic fundamentalism
led to the efficient establishment of a clergy-dominated Islamic Republic,
where the USA was styled as the 'Great Satan' and Israel fared not much
Not long after the
Ayatollah was proclaimed Emam (leader), Iraqi President Saddam Hussein
made an opportunistic land grab in Khuzestan province. It was a disastrous
move, embroiling the two countries in a hideous war that killed hundreds
of thousands before an unsatisfactory ceasefire was negotiated in 1988.
The Western powers and the USSR supported Iraq, using 'lesser of two
evils' logic, and weapons were only sold to Iran at vastly inflated
On 4 June 1989,
Ayatollah Khomeini died, leaving an uncertain legacy. Two months later
Hojjat-ol-Eslam Rafsanjani was elected president, a post which had previously
been largely ceremonial, and Khomeini's position as Supreme Leader was
taken by the former president, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. A trade embargo
was implemented against Iran by the USA, who alleged that Iran had sponsored
terrorist groups throughout the region and destabilised the peace process
in the Middle East.
Following the 1997
landslide election of the moderate Iranian President Mohammed Khatami,
many hoped that relations with the outside world would improve. However,
relations with Germany (and most of Europe) hit rock bottom in 1997
after a German court ruled that the Iranian government had been involved
in the assassination of Iranian Kurds in Germany several years earlier.
Iran's international position was further destabilised when the US president
George W. Bush lumped it into his 'axis of evil'.
encouraged Iranian reformers, but real power still remained with the
Islamic clerics despite reformist rumblings and international pressure.
In the 2004 elections the conservatives won control of parliament in
a process marked by controversy - the hardline Council of Guardians
had disqualified many reform-minded candidates prior to the poll.
In 2003, Iran came
under pressure from the International Atomic Energy Agency over its
nuclear energy program. Subsequent IAEA inspections that year concluded
there was no evidence that Iran had a nuclear weapons program.
2003 the country was hit by one of the catastrophic earthquakes to which
it has historically been prone. Centred around the city of Bam in southeastern
Iran, it killed 40,000 people and left the city in ruins.