Pupils Worldwide

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Bangladesh






Atlas Bangladesh


K.A Former Pupils Worldwide

If you are a former pupil of Kilmarnock Academy
and you currently live or work in this country (or have lived in it for a period of time), then e-mail us at kaworldwide@kilmarnockacademy.co.uk with your details. The essential details are: your name; the years you attended Kilmarnock Academy; where in the country you live or work (if you no longer live or work in this country, please state the years you were in residence there).

If you want to - and it does make things a lot more interesting - you can also provide us with a brief account of a favourite place or fond memory or favourite anecdote or local customs or local cuisine (or anything else about this country that you'd like to share with us). You can, if you wish, also include one or two photographs of places you lived in or visited during your stay in this country.


K.A. International - Worldwide Learning Network
If you know of a school in this country (possibly one that your own children have attended) that would be interested in developing links and engaging in joint projects with pupils at K.A., then please e-mail kaworldwide@kilmarnockacademy.co.uk with contact details. You can get more information on this initiative by clicking here.

N. McIlvanney 2005

K.A Former Pupils in Australia

Name                                                   Years attended K.A.                                   Area, City or Town of Residence



K.A. Pupils' Postcards
If you are a pupil or former pupil of Kilmarnock Academy
and you have visited this country, then e-mail us at postcard@kilmarnockacademy.co.uk with your details. The essential details are: your name; the years you attended Kilmarnock Academy; where in the country you visited.

If you want to - and it does make this page a lot more worthwhile - you can also provide us with a brief account of a favourite place or fond memory or unusual experience or local customs or local cuisine or first impressions or lasting impressions. (You can, if you wish, also include one or two photographs of a place you visited in this country).


N. McIlvanney 2005

K.A Pupils' Postcards from Australia

Name                                                   Years attended K.A.                                    Area, City or Town Visited


Country (long form)

People's Republic of Bangladesh
Capital
Dhaka
Total Area
55,598.71 sq mi
144,000.00 sq km
Population
129,194,224 (July 2000 est.)
Estimated Population in 2050
205,093,861
Languages
Bangla (official), English
Literacy
38.1% total, 49.4% male, 26.1% female (1995 est.)
Religions
Muslim 88.3%, Hindu 10.5%, other 1.2%
Life Expectancy
60.4 male, 59.91 female (2000 est.)
Government Type
republic
Currency
1 taka (Tk) = 100 poisha
GDP (per capita)
$1,470 (1999 est.)
Labor Force (by occupation)
agriculture 63%, services 26%, industry 11% (FY95/96)
Industry
cotton textiles, jute, garments, tea processing, paper newsprint, cement, chemical fertilizer, light engineering, sugar
Agriculture
rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes; beef, milk, poultry, tobacco, pulses, oilseeds, spices, fruit
Arable Land
73%
Exports
garments, jute and jute goods, leather, frozen fish and seafood
Imports
machinery and equipment, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles, raw cotton, food, crude oil and petroleum products, cement
Natural Resources
natural gas, arable land, timber
Current Environmental Issues
many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate flood-prone land; limited access to potable water; water-borne diseases prevalent; water pollution especially of fishing areas results from the use of commercial pesticides; intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables in the northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation; deforestation; severe overpopulation
Telephones (main lines in use)
470,000 (1998)
Telephones (mobile cellular)
41,000 (1998)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs)
6 (1999)

History
Medieval European geographers located paradise at the mouth of the Ganges and although this was overhopeful, Bengal was probably the wealthiest part of the subcontinent up until the 16th century. The area's early history featured a succession of Indian empires, internal squabbling, and a tussle between Hinduism and Buddhism for dominance. All of this was just a prelude to the unstoppable tide of Islam which washed over northern India at the end of the 12th century. Mohammed Bakhtiar, from Turkistan, captured Bengal in 1199 with only 20 men thanks to an unexplained 'bold and clever strategy'.

Under the Moghul viceroys, art and literature flourished, overland trade expanded and Bengal was opened to world maritime trade - the latter marking the death knell of Moghul power as Europeans began to establish themselves in the region. The Portuguese arrived as early as the 15th century but were ousted in 1633 by local opposition. The East India Company negotiated terms to establish a fortified trading post in Kolkata in 1690. The decline of Moghul power led to greater provincial autonomy, heralding the rise of the independent dynasty of the nawabs of Bengal. Humble East India Company clerk Robert Clive ended up effectively ruling Bengal when one of the impetuous nawabs attacked the thriving British enclave in Kolkata and stuffed those unlucky enough not to escape in an underground cellar. Clive retook Kolkata a year later and the British Government replaced the East India Company following the Indian Mutiny in 1857.

The Brits established an organisational and social structure unparalleled in Bengal, and Kolkata became one of the most important centres for commerce, education and culture in the subcontinent. However, many Bangladeshi historians blame the Brits' dictatorial agricultural policies and promotion of the semi-feudal zamindar system for draining the region of its wealth and damaging its social fabric. The British presence was a relief to the minority Hindus but a catastrophe for the Muslims. The Hindus cooperated with the Brits, entering British educational institutions and studying the English language, but the Muslims refused to cooperate, and rioted whenever crops failed or another local product was rendered unprofitable by government policy.

At the close of WWII it was clear that Indian independence was inevitable. It was attained in 1947 but the struggle was bitter and divisive, especially in Bengal where the fight for self-government was complicated by internal religious conflict. The British, realising any agreement between the Muslims and Hindus was impossible, decided to partition the subcontinent, but Bengal and Punjab, the two overwhelmingly Muslim regions, lay on opposite sides of India. The situation was complicated in Bengal where the major cash crop, jute, was produced in the Muslim-dominated east, but processed and shipped from the Hindu-dominated city of Kolkata in the west.

East Bengal became the runt state of East Pakistan. It was administered unfavourably from West Pakistan, with which it shared few similarities apart from the Muslim faith. Inequalities between the two regions soon stirred up a sense of Bengali nationalism that had not been reckoned with during the push for Muslim independence. When the Pakistan government declared that 'Urdu and only Urdu' would be the national language, the Bangla-speaking Bengalis decided it was time to assert themselves. The language issue quickly became a self-government issue. When the Awami League, a nationalist party, won a majority in the 1971 national elections, the president of Pakistan, faced with this unacceptable result, postponed opening the National Assembly. Riots and strikes broke out in East Pakistan, the independent state of Bangladesh was unilaterally announced, and Pakistan sent troops to quell the rebellion.

The ensuing war was one of the shortest and bloodiest of modern times, with the Pakistan army occupying all major towns, using napalm against villages, and slaughtering and raping villagers. Bangladeshis refer to Pakistan's brutal tactics as attempted genocide. Border clashes between Pakistan and India increased as Indian-trained Bangladeshi guerrillas crossed the border. When the Pakistani air force made a pre-emptive attack on Indian forces, open warfare ensued. Indian troops crossed the border and the Pakistani army found itself being attacked from the east by the Indian army, the north and east by guerrillas and from all quarters by the civilian population. In 11 days it was all over and Bangladesh, the world's 139th country, officially came into existence. Sheikh Mujib, one of the founders of the Awami League, became the country's first prime minister in January 1972; he was assassinated in 1975 during a period of crisis.

The ruined and decimated new country experienced famine in 1973-74, followed by martial law, successive military coups and political assassinations. In 1979 Bangladesh began a short-lived experiment with democracy led by the overwhelmingly popular President Zia, who established good relationships with the West and the oil-rich Islamic countries. His assassination in 1981 ultimately returned the country to a military government that periodically made vague announcements that elections would be held 'soon'. While these announcements were rapturously greeted by the local press as proof that Bangladesh was indeed a democracy, nothing came of them until 1991. That year the military dictator General Ershad was forced to resign by an unprecedented popular movement led by the Bangladesh Nationalist Party and the Awami League.

In 1991 democracy was re-established and Begum Khaleda Zia became prime minister. The economy ticked along at a healthy growth rate, and ties with the West were strengthened. By 1994, however, many Bangladeshis had become disenchanted with the Zia government. Despite election promises, the 1974 Special Powers Act, allowing detention without charge for 120 days, had never been repealed. There were claims that the government had rigged by-elections, and military and police repression of dissenters appeared to be on the rise. Opposition parties called for mass general strikes and the country's bureaucrats walked out.

A general election was held in February 1996, but a boycott by opposition parties, 5% voter turnout, and claims of ballot box stuffing and repression of anti-government protesters raised serious questions about the legitimacy of the re-elected Zia government. Opposition parties and activist groups campaigned against the election, and on 30 March Zia stood down and a caretaker government under Muhammad Habibur Rahman was appointed. Elections, generally seen as free and fair, were held in June and a coalition government headed by Sheikh Hasina Wazed of the Awami League was voted in. In October 2001 the Bangladesh Nationalist Party won the parliamentary elections and Zia was sworn in as prime minister.

Other than the annual floods that sweep over the country, in recent years Bangladeshis have been afflicted with the contamination of village well water with arsenic, leading to widespread health problems. Ironically, these wells were the result of a previous foreign aid project.